Docker Images

Valohai utilizes Docker images to define your runtime environment. This means that the platform is capable of running any code from C to Python as long as it can run inside a Docker container.

You can use any Docker image available online. After getting initial versions working, it makes sense to package your dependencies by building your own images.

We recommend hosting your images on Docker Hub as it’s the most straight forward but you can use any Docker registry. You can configure authenticated access under organization settings.

Here are the most common Docker images currently used on the platform:

ufoym/deepo:all-py36                     # good for initial prototyping
ufoym/deepo:all-py36-cpu                 # good for initial prototyping
tensorflow/tensorflow:<VERSION>-gpu-py3  # e.g. 1.15.0, for GPU support
tensorflow/tensorflow:<VERSION>-py3      # e.g. 1.15.0, for CPU only
pytorch/pytorch:<VERSION>                # e.g. 1.3-cuda10.1-cudnn7-runtime
continuumio/miniconda:<VERSION>          # e.g. 4.7.10
python:<VERSION>                         # e.g. 3.8.0
r-base:<VERSION>                         # e.g. 3.6.1
julia:<VERSION>                          # e.g. 1.3.0
bash:<VERSION>                           # e.g. 5.0.11, for light scripting
busybox:<VERSION>                        # e.g. 1.13.1, for light scripting

Which images to use depend on your specific use-case, but it usually makes sense to:

  • start with as minimal image as possible
  • use a specific image tag (the :<VERSION> part) so everything stays reproducible

Access Private Docker Repositories

Organizations can use private repositories from Docker Hub, AWS, GCP or Azure for Valohai executions.

  1. Create registry credentials so Valohai workers can authenticate to your Docker registry
    • You can find step-by-step instructions for different providers down below
  2. Login at
  3. Navigate to Hi, <name> (the top right menu) > Manage <organization>
  4. Go to Registries under the organization controls
  5. Add a new entry
  6. Insert the match pattern in the format of <domain>/<owner-and-or-repository>/* e.g.
    • The exact form largely depends on your registry provider. Find how they report image names to learn the format.
  7. Choose your registry type and provide the access credentials generated in the first step
  8. Use the full name of the tagged container (e.g. when defining the image in your valohai.yaml

Private container registries can be used only in organization projects.

Create registry credentials for Valohai

Docker Hub

Create and use an access token

Azure Container Registry

Create and use service principal credentials

Google Cloud Container Registry

Container Registry uses Cloud Storage buckets as their storage for your images. You control access to your images by granting appropriate Cloud Storage permissions to identities.

  1. Create a new service account under your Google Cloud project that contains the registry
  2. Add Service Account Token Creator role so it can create temporary tokens for itself
  3. Allow the service account to access the registry:
    • Go to (Cloud Storage listing)
    • Find and click the bucket that hosts your Container Registry images, it’s in format <OPTIONAL_REGION>.artifacts.<PROJECT_ID>
    • Click Permissions
    • Click Add members
    • Search for the service account using the full ID (the one that looks like an email)
    • Add role Storage Object Viewer if pulling or Storage Admin if pulling and pushing
    • Click Save
  4. Download the service account JSON to use in Valohai

AWS Elastic Container Registry

  1. Create a new User with Programmatic access

  2. Create a new policy valohai-ecr-policy with the below JSON
    • Note: Replace the placeholders with the right region, account ID and registry name.
        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [
                "Sid": "0",
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                "Resource": "arn:aws:ecr:<REGION>:<ACCOUNT_ID>:repository/<REPOSITORY>"
                "Sid": "1",
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": "ecr:GetAuthorizationToken",
                "Resource": "*"
  3. Attach the new policy to the user and create the user.

  4. Make note of the IAM access key and secret to use in Valohai